Spatio-Temporal Water Quality Assessment and Pollution Source Apportionment of Lake Chamo using Water Quality Index and Multivariate Statistical Techniques

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Solomon Ghebrehiwet Ghebremedhin

  •   Bhaskar Sen Gupta

Abstract

Despite the current management effort to reduce pollution of water bodies, lakes are far more vulnerable to pollution than the ocean and rivers. Point and non-point pollution are ending on the lake bodies and concerned bodies should trigger interventions. This study aims to assess the effect of pollution on the water quality of Chamo lake using the weighted arithmetic water quality index (WQI) and multivariate statistical methods. Fifteen monitoring points are used to collect water samples from the lake for dry and rainy periods. Twenty-three physical-chemical parameters were analyzed in the water quality laboratory of Arba Minch University, out of which five parameters were analyzed using a multi-meter at the field. The physicochemical water quality analysis result of Lake Chamo revealed that the constituent’s concentration did not show significant variation spatially. The factor analysis result in the Lake Chamo revealed that it had extracted seven principal components that can be explained with a total variance of 86.3%. More than 65% of the monitoring stations in Lake Chamo have an acceptable water quality for irrigation. Moreover, some of the monitoring stations, closer to high human activities, are relatively more polluted than others. Besides, some sensitive parameters such as turbidity have clearly shown that the WQI value can be changed with the parameters changing. Based on clustering analysis, most (47%) of the monitoring are characterized by the recipients of uncontrolled public and state farm and agricultural wastes. The study recommends integrated watershed management and source-based pollution control, which could significantly decrease the pollution level in Lake Chamo after identifying the pollution hotspot areas. Continuous Lake water quality monitoring is necessary for deciding lake pollution.

Keywords: Chamo Lake, Cluster Analysis, Monitoring Stations, Multivariate Statistics, WQI.

References

Ababu T. Water quality monitoring in Lake Abaya and Lake Chamo region. Arbaminch, Ethiopia. University of Siegen; 2005.

Aman Y, Bezayit M, Berhanu B, Tesfaye GT, Tarekegn D, Tefri Z, Yonas T, et al. Geological map of Dila map sheet (NB37-6); Geological map of Hosaena area and Geological map of Nazret, Geological survey of Ethiopia; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. To accompany memoir No.37; 2012.

Andrea M, Domagoj R. Evaluation of river water quality variations using multivariate statistical techniques. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2015; 1: 187-215.

Awulachew SB. Investigation of physical and bathymetric characteristics of Lakes Abaya and Chamo, Ethiopia, and their management implications. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management, 2006; 11(3): 133-140.

Brown RM, McClelland NI, Deininger RA, O’Connor MF. (1972). A water quality index—crashing the psychological barrier. In: Indicators of environmental quality. Boston, MA: Springer, 1972, pp. 173-182.

Horton IRK. An index number for rating water quality. Journal of Water Pollution and Control Federation, 1965; 37(3): 300-306.

Jeevanandam M, Talelign W, Biru A, Sakthi JS, Silva JD, Saravanan, P, Jonathan MP. Evidences of microplastics in Hawassa Lake, Ethiopia: A first-hand report. Chemosphere, 2022: 133979.

Makin M, Kingham T, Waddams A, Birchall C, Teferra T. Development prospects in the Southern Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Land Resource Study, Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas Development, UK (21); 1975.

Mereta ST, Ambelu A, Ermias A, Abdie Y, Moges M, Haddis A, Mulat WL, et al. Effects of untreated industrial effluents on water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of Lake Hawassa and its tributaries, Southern Ethiopia. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 2020; 45(3): 285-295.

Sayadi M, Rezae A, Rezaei M, Nourozi K. Multivariate statistical analysis of surface water chemistry: A case study of Gharasoo River. Process of International Academic of Ecological Environmental Science, 2014; 4: 114-122.

Teffera FE, Lemmens P, Deriemaecker A, Deckers J, Bauer H, Gamo FW, Brendonck L, De Meester L. Why are Lake Abaya and Lake Chamo so different? A limnological comparison of two neighboring major Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes. Hydrobiologia, 2018; 829(1): 113–124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-018-3707-8.

Tiruneh TA. Water Quality Monitoring in Lake Abaya and Lake Chamo Region: A Research Based on Water Resources of the Abaya-Chamo Basin-South Ethiopia. PhD thesis, University of Siegen; 2006.

Tripathy JK, Sahu KC. Seasonal hydrochemistry of groundwater in the Barrier Spit system of the Chilika Lagoon, India. Journal of Environmental Hydrology, 2005; 13.

Wagesho N. Catchment dynamics and its impact on runoff generation: coupling watershed modelling and statistical analysis to detect catchment responses. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 2014; 6(2): 73–87.

Zhao J, Fu G, Lei K, Li Y. Multivariate analysis of surface water quality in the Three Gorges area of China and implications for water management. Journal of Environmental Science, 2011; 23:1460-1471.

Zigde HM, Tsegaye ME. Evaluation of the current water quality of Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 2019; 11(7): 120-128.

APHA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (23rd ed.). Washington DC: American Public Health Association; 2017.

Chatterjee C, Raziuddin M. Determination of water quality index of a degraded river in Asanol Industrial area, Raniganj, Burdwan, West Bengal. Nature, Environment and Pollution Technology, 2002;1(2):181-189.

Miura K, Ban M, Ohba T, Fujinawa A. Sequence of the 1895 eruption of the Zao volcano, Tohoku Japan. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2012; 247–248: 139–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.08.005.

Sing T, Sander O, Beerenwinkel N, Lengauer T. ROCR: visualizing classifier performance in R. Bioinformatics, 2005; 21(20): 3940–3941. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bti623.

Rakotondrabe F, Ndam Ngoupayou JR, Mfonka Z, Rasolomanana EH, Nyangono Abolo AJ, Ako Ako A. Water quality assessment in the Bétaré-Oya gold mining area (East-Cameroon): Multivariate Statistical Analysis approach. Science of the Total Environment, 2018; 610–611: 831–844. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.080.

Pärn E, Edwards D, Sing M. The building information modelling trajectory in facilities management: A review. Automation in Construction, 2017; 75, 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2016.12.003.

Huang H, Yu Z, Zhang S, Liang X, Chen J, Li C, Ma J, Jiao R. Drosophila CAF-1 regulates HP1-mediated epigenetic silencing and pericentric heterochromatin stability. J. Cell Sci., 2010; 123(16): 2853-2861.

Khettaf S, Khouni I, Louhichi G, Ghrabi A, Bousselmi L, Bouhidel KE, Bouhelassa M. Optimization of coagulation–flocculation process in the treatment of surface water for a maximum dissolved organic matter removal using RSM approach. Water Supply, 2021; 21(6): 3042–3056. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2021.070.

Barakat A, El Baghdadi M, Rais J, Aghezzaf B, Slassi M. Assessment of spatial and seasonal water quality variation of Oum Er Rbia River (Morocco) using multivariate statistical techniques. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 2016; 4(4): 284–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2016.11.002.

Angello Z, Behailu B, Tränckner J. Selection of Optimum Pollution Load Reduction and Water Quality Improvement Approaches Using Scenario Based Water Quality Modeling in Little Akaki River, Ethiopia. Water, 2021; 13(5): 584. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050584.

Mishra B, Rafiei Emam A, Masago Y, Kumar P, Regmi R, Fukushi K. Assessment of future flood inundations under climate and land use change scenarios in the Ciliwung River Basin, Jakarta. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 2017; 11, S1105–S1115. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12311.

World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2017: Monitoring Health for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (1st ed.). World Health Statistics Annual; 2017.

Yakob G, Gebremicheal A, Aklilu A, Melaku E. Participatory Evaluation of Different Multipurpose Grass Species for Graded Soil Bund Stabilization in Gimbo District, South West Ethiopia. OALib, 2015; 02(06): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1101627.

Abendong AA, Emmanuel E, Fongoh EJ, Akoachere RA. Assessment of groundwater quality in Bamenda–Cameroon for suitable applications. SN Applied Sciences, 2019; 1(11). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1351-1.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Ghebremedhin, S. G., & Gupta, B. S. (2023). Spatio-Temporal Water Quality Assessment and Pollution Source Apportionment of Lake Chamo using Water Quality Index and Multivariate Statistical Techniques. European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, 4(1), 11–19. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2023.4.1.368

Most read articles by the same author(s)