Impact of Human Activities on the Carbon Monoxide Levels in Port Harcourt Metropolis: A Rare Experience with Covid-19 Lockdown

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Sowaboma N. Asimea

  •   Godswill K. Fekarurhobo

  •   Akuro E. Gobo

  •   Gloria I. Ndukwe

  •   Azibaola K. Inengite

Abstract

This study was conducted to monitor the impact of human activities on the air quality of Port Harcourt Metropolis, during and after the Covid-19 Lockdown period where human activities were brought to an all-time low. Ten selected locations, evenly distributed around Port Harcourt Metropolis were studied while Rivers State University served as the Control Site. The meteorological parameters studied alongside carbon monoxide were atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. Standard methods were applied in capturing data in-situ, using hand-held devices. Data were collected for six months capturing rainy and dry season months and the lockdown periods. Air Quality Indices were also calculated for CO. The results obtained reveal that meteorological data gathered were characteristic of the study area. The values of carbon monoxide were higher in the Sampling Sites with a mean range of (0.632 – 3.291) ppm in the rainy season and (0.422 – 9.037) ppm in the dry season) than in the Control Site with a mean of (0.133 ppm in the rainy season and 0.493 ppm in the dry season). The level of CO was higher in the dry season as compared to the rainy season. There was strong positive correlation with respect to carbon monoxide amongst sampling locations with similar human activities. The correlation of the sampling locations with the Control Site were mostly weak. A reduction of the concentrations of carbon monoxide was recorded during the Covid-19 Lockdown periods. The AQI values indicate that the air quality was categorized as good with respect to carbon monoxide in the lockdown periods and was between moderate to unhealthy in the non-lockdown periods. It is clearly evident that air quality is a function of the level of human activities, especially those that result in the emission of noxious air pollutants. It is recommended that the air quality be put under regular monitoring in order to regulate the human activities that can impact on the air quality.


Keywords: Air Quality, Covid-19 Lockdown, Human Activities.

References

Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN. From air pollution to climate change. Atmospheric chemistry and physics. 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc: New York (USA)1998;1326.

Njoku KL, Rumide TJ, Akinola MO, Adesuyi AA, Jolaoso AO. Ambient air quality monitoring in metropolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2016 May 9;20(1):178-85.

Hvidtfeldt UA, Geels C, Sørensen M, Ketzel M, Khan J, Tjønneland A, Christensen JH, Brandt J, Raaschou-Nielsen O. Long-term residential exposure to PM2. 5 constituents and mortality in a Danish cohort. Environment international. 2019 Dec 1;133:105268.

Manisalidis I, Stavropoulou E, Stavropoulos A, Bezirtzoglou E. Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review. Front. Public Health. 2020 8:14. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00014.

Rumana HS, Sharma RC, Beniwal V, Sharma AK. A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, western Rajasthan, India. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2014 Dec;12(1):1-9.

Oladimeji T, Sonibare J, Odunfa M, Ayeni A. Modeling of criteria air pollutant emissions from selected Nigeria petroleum refineries. Journal of Power and Energy Engineering. 2015;3(06):31.

Ghorani-Azam A, Riahi-Zanjani B, Balali-Mood M. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2016;21.

Obanya HE, Amaeze NH, Togunde O, Otitoloju AA. Air pollution monitoring around residential and transportation sector locations in Lagos Mainland. Journal of Health and Pollution. 2018 Sep 1;8(19).

Adoki A. Air quality survey of some locations in the Niger Delta Area. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2012;16(1):125-34.

Zhang W, Qian CN, Zeng YX. Air pollution: A smoking gun for cancer. Chinese journal of cancer. 2014 Apr;33(4):173.

Nwokocha CO, Edebeatu CC, Okujagu CU. Measurement, Survey and Assessment of Air Quality in Port Harcourt, South–South Nigeria. Int J Adv Res Phys Sci. 2015;2(7):19-25.

Akinfolarin OM, Boisa N, Obunwo CC. Assessment of particulate matter-based air quality index in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of environmental analytical chemistry. 2017;4(4):1-4.

Donatelle RJ, Hudson D, Dobie S, Goodall A, Hunsberger M, Oswald K. Incentives in smoking cessation: status of the field and implications for research and practice with pregnant smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2004 Apr;6(Suppl_2):S163-79.

Horsfall Jr M, Spiff AI. Principles of environmental pollution, toxicology and waste management. Port Harcourt Nigeria: Onyoma Research Publications. 2013.

Broomandi P, Karaca F, Nikfal A, Jahanbakhshi A, Tamjidi M, Kim JR. Impact of COVID-19 event on the air quality in Iran. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2020 Aug;20(8):1793-804.

Chinago AB. Anaysis of rainfall trend, fluctuation and pattern over Port Harcourt, Niger Delta Coastal Environment of Nigeria. Biodiversity International Journal. 2020;4(1):1-8.

Yusuf N, Okoh D, Musa I, Adedoja S, Said R. A study of the surface air temperature variations in Nigeria. The Open Atmospheric Science Journal. 2017 Jun 30;11(1).

Yousefi S, Shahsavani A, Hadei M. Applying EPA’s instruction to calculate air quality index (AQI) in Tehran. Journal of Air Pollution and Health. 2019 Jun 29;4(2):81-6.

Bishoi B, Prakash A, Jain VK. A comparative study of air quality index based on factor analysis and US-EPA methods for an urban environment. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2009 Mar 1;9(1):1-7.

Edokpa DO, Nwagbara MO. Atmospheric Stability Pattern over Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2017;5(1):9-17.

Uko ED, Tamunobereton-Ari I. Variability of climatic parameters in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2013 Oct 1;4(5):727-30.

Agada IO, Agada PO, Fila GT. Variability in relative humidty and air temperature in Kano and Port Harcourt, Nigeria. FUW Trend in Sci. & Techn. J. 2017;2(2):905-9.

Ubong IU, Ideriah TJK, Igbara J, Ubong EU. Ambient Air Quality Assessment of RSUST Campus Air Basin, Port Harcourt. International Journal of Advanced and Innovative Research. 2015; 8:207-218.

Adedeji OH, Oluwafunmilayo O, Oluwaseun TA. Mapping of traffic-related air pollution using GIS techniques in Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria. The Indonesian Journal of Geography. 2016 Jun 1;48(1):73.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Asimea, S. N., Fekarurhobo, G. K., Gobo, A. E., Ndukwe, G. I., & Inengite, A. K. (2022). Impact of Human Activities on the Carbon Monoxide Levels in Port Harcourt Metropolis: A Rare Experience with Covid-19 Lockdown. European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, 3(5), 25–31. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2022.3.5.310