The impacts of climate change especially on water resources are beginning to manifest both globally and regionally. More disturbing is the fact that developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, are the most affected by these impacts due mainly to their high exposure, sensitivity, and low adaptive capacity. For Ghana, the general climate change has manifested in rising temperatures, declining rainfall, high extreme weather conditions, and rising sea levels. In response to these challenges, the country has developed national adaptation strategies for implementation at regional, district, community, and individual levels. Key among the strategies for reducing the impacts of climate change on the water are the conservation of water resources, improving and sustaining the quality of water, and increasing the availability of water for domestic and agricultural purposes. However, the level of vulnerability to climate change is influenced by both social and spatial factors because of the different ecological zones whose characteristics significantly influence both the physical and socio-economic dimensions of the various areas differently. Additionally, the decentralized implementation of the national climate change adaptation strategy has largely failed to achieve any significant results due to a lack of capacity on the part of the implementation partners at the various levels, as well as the overambitious nature of the strategy. A more ecologically tailored approach with an emphasis on the district and community levels is recommended for going forward. Improvements on the various components of vulnerability with regard to water management are recommended for reducing the effects of droughts.
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