Irrigation Water Quality Assessment and Hydrochemical Facie of Oguta Lake, Southeastern Nigeria


  •   F. M. Madu

  •   E. I. Okoyeh

  •   C. M. Okolo

  •   P. Aseh

  •   U. F. Elomba


The quality of water for irrigation is important for maintaining soil properties and improving yields. This study assessed the quality of Oguta Lake for irrigation using irrigation indices of SAR, %Na, PI, KI, and MH. Twenty (20) water samples were collected in the study area over two seasons and analyzed using standard methods. The results indicate that the water is excellent for irrigation with values of SAR, %Na, PI, KI, and MH ranging between 0-0.007, 0-0.18, 213-329, 0.0006-0.0022, and 0.06-13 in the dry season and 0.001-0.154, 0-3.57, 212-328, 0.008-0.0477 and 4.46-13.21 in the rainy season respectively. Piper and Durov diagrams were used to determine the hydrochemical facie of the water and both plots indicate that the water type is dominantly Ca2+ - Mg2+ - HCO3- and this water type is typical of fresh water. The piper plot also shows that weak acid exceeds strong acids and alkaline earth (dominant metal ions) exceeds alkalis. The concentration of major cations and anions follows the trend, Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ > Na+ and HCO3 > SO42- > CO3- > Cl-, respectively.

Keywords: Hydrochemical facie, Irrigation water quality, Irrigation indices, Oguta Lake


Sadashivaiah, C. CRR and GR. Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India. Intl J Environ Res Public Heal. 2008;5(3):158–64.

Singh S.K, Srivastava P.K, Singh D, Han D, Gautam S.K. Modeling groundwater quality over a humid subtropical region using numerical indices, earth observation datasets, and X-ray diffraction technique: a case study of Allahabad district, India. Env Geochem Heal. 2015;37(1):157–80.

Singh S.K, Srivastava P.K, Pandey A.C GS. Integrated assessment of groundwater influenced by a confluence river system: concurrence with remote sensing and geochemical modelling. Water Resour Manag. 2013;27(12):4291–313.

Gautam S.K, Maharana C, Sharma D, Singh A.K, Tripathi JK SS. Evaluation of groundwater quality in the Chotanagpur Plateau region of the Subarnarekha River Basin, Jharkhand State, India. Sustain Water Qual Ecol. 2015;6:57–74.

Nfor B.N. Inventory of Quaternary Geology and the Evolution of the Oguta Lake, Southeastern Nigeria. Quat Int. 2012;279–280:351.

Ahiarakwem C.A, Nwankwor G.I, Onyekuru S.O. An Assessment of the Physical and Environmental Aspects of a Tropical Lake: A Case Studey of the Oguta Lake Watershed, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria. Am Int J Contemp Res. 2012;2(7):53–60.

Ananaba, S.E, Onu, N.N, and Iwuagwu, C.J., 1993. Geophysical study of the gravel deposits in Ihiagwa, Owerri, Nigeria. Journal of Mining Geology, Vol.29 (2),pp.95-100.

Short K.C, Stauble A.J. Outline of Geology of Niger Delta. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull. 1967;51.

Ahiarakwem C.A, Onyekuru S.O. A Comparative Assessment of the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Trends in Njaba River, Niger Delta Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. J Water Resour Prot. 2011;03(09):686–93.

Okoro B.C, Uzoukwu R.A, Chimezie N.M. River Basins of Imo State for Sustainable Water Resources Management. J Civ Environ Eng. 2014;04(01):1–8.

ALPHA 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 23rd edition. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association, 2017. Public Health. 2005;(1):1–22.

Piper A. A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. Am Geophys Union Trans,. 1994;v.25:914–23.

Todd D.K. Ground Water Hydrology. John Wiley Sons Publ Hoboken, NJ, USA. 1995;3rd edition.

Raghunath. Ground Water:Hydrogeology, Ground Water Survey and Pumping Tests, Rural Water Supply and Irrigation Systems. Vilely Easteren Ltd, New Delhi, India. 1987;2nd edition.

Doneen L.D. Salinization of soils by salt in irrigation water. Am Geophysics Union. 1964;943–950.

Kelly W. Permissible composition and concentration of irrigated waters. Proc Am Soc Civ Eng. 1940;66, 607–613.

Szabolcs .I and C. Darab. The influence of irrigation water of high sodium carbonate content of soils. In: in Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of ISSS. 1964. p. 803–812.


How to Cite
Madu, F. M., Okoyeh, E. I., Okolo, C. M., Aseh, P., & Elomba, U. F. (2022). Irrigation Water Quality Assessment and Hydrochemical Facie of Oguta Lake, Southeastern Nigeria. European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, 3(1), 1-6.