The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Al and Fe in Heavy Duty Trucks (HDT), Power Generating Plants (PGP), Motor Vehicles (MV) and Small Generator (SG) Soot derived from the College of Agriculture, Bukan Sidi and Mararaba Akunza in Lafia City, Nigeria, were assessed for the level of contamination using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results indicated that the ranges of heavy metal concentrations in soot (mg/kg) were: Pb (0.0911±0.001 to 0.069±0.008) for the HDTs, (0.775±0.008 to 0.002±0.000) for the PGPs, (0.456±0.000 to 0.091±0.000) for the MVs and (0.837±0.000 to 0.027±0.000) for the SGs. The concentrations of Cd and Cr in the HDTs and PGPs were below the detection limits of the AAS. More so, Cd and Cr in MVs were below the detection limits of the AAS except for one of the MVs which gave a highly objectionable Cr concentration of 4.336±0.004 above WHO permissible limits for emissions into air and water. Al concentrations across the soot samples ranges from (0.126±0.002 to 0.093±0.001) for HDT, (0.170±0.001 to 0.097±0.000) for PGPs, (0.150±0.000 to 0.057±0.001) for MVs; and (1.348±0.000 to 0.518±0.000) for SGs. Iron concentrations ranges from (65.885±0.006 to 27.834±0.009) for HDTs, (62.663±0.004 to 11.422±0.019) for PGPs, (52.448±0.003 to 2.418±0.001) for MV, and (129.433±0.008 to 9.129±0.002) for the SGs. The results revealed that the concentration of Pb, Al and Fe in the HDTs, PGPs, MVs and SGs are above the WHO permissible limits for emissions into air and water. Cd, Cr, Al and Fe concentrations were higher in concentrations in SGs. The presence of heavy metals in the sampled soot portends their transfer to the food chain, especially as crop and vegetable cultivation in and around Lafia city.
J. Xi, and B.J. Zhong, “Soot in Diesel Combustion Systems,” Chemical Engineering & Technology, 29(6), pp. 665-673, 2006. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/215453602_Soot_in_Diesel_combustion_system.
H. Omidvarborna, A. Kumar, and D.S. Kim, “Recent studies on soot modeling for Diesel Combustion,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 48, pp. 635-647, 2015. DO-10.1016/J.rser.2015.04.019.
R. Niranjan, and A.K. Thakur, “The Toxicological Mechanisms of Environmental Soot (Black Carbon) and Carbon Black: Focus on Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways,” Frontiers in Immunology, 8, June 2017, p.763, 2017. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00763.
A. Ewa, J.K. Elzbieta, and W. Robert, “Heavy Metals from Non-exhaust Vehicle Emissions in Urban and Motorway Road Dusts,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 188, p. 369, 2016. DOI 10.1007/s10661-016-5377-1.
R.K. Gautam, S.K.. Sharma, S. Mahiya, and M. C. Chattopadhyaya, Contamination of Heavy Metals in Aquatic Media: Transport, Toxicity and Technologies for Remediation, p.17, 2014. Published by the Royal Society of Chemistry. www.rsc.org. Doi: 10.1039/9781782620174-00001
A.U. Augustine, J.C Onwuka., and C.Q. Albert, “Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves, Bark and Soil along Some Major Roads in Lafia, Nasarawa State Nigeria,” Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 8(5), pp. 38-43, 2016. Available: https://doi.org/10.5897/JECE2016.0371.
C.N. Ibeto, C.O.B. Okoye, A. Ofoefule, and E. Uzodinma, Analysis of Environmental Pollutants by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Macro To Nano Spectroscopy, Dr Jamal Uddin (Ed.). ISBN: 978-953-51-0064-7, pp. 25-50, 2012. Available: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/37652.
E. Okorie, C. Olorunfemi, and H. Sule, “Assessment of Some Selected Heavy Metals in Soot from the Exhaust of Heavy Duty Trucks and Power Generating Plants in Nigeria by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer,” International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 4(4), pp. 1146-1152, 2010. Available: http://ajol.info/index.php/ijbcs.
E.O. Ogur, and S.M. Kariuki, “Effect of Car Emissions on Human Health and the Environment,” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 9(21), pp. 11121-11128, 2014. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272073031.
J. Lu, Environmental Effects of Vehicle Exhausts, Global and Local Effects-A Comparison between Gasoline and Diesel. Master Thesis of Applied Environmental Science. School of Business and Engineering,p.11. Halmstad University, 2011. Available: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:427347/FULLTEXT01.pdf
F.A. Atiku, P.O. Ikeh, U.Z. Faruk, A.U. Itodo, A. Abdulhamid, and I.I. Rikoto, “Comparative Test Analysis of Petroleum (Diesel and Gasoline) Soots as Potential Sources of Toxic Metals from Exhausts of Power Plants,” Archives of Applied Science Research, 2011, 3(4), pp. 147-156. Available: www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com.
L.K. Doamekpor, Y. Abusa, C. Acheampong, R.K. Klarke, V.K. Nartey, and M.M.E.A. Aoamekpor, “Assessment of Some Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in soot from the Exhaust of Standby Generators,” International Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences, 8(3), pp. 81-94, 2019. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332819698.
A.Y. Watson, and P. A. Valberg, Carbon Black and Soot: Two Different Substances. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 62(2), pp.218-228, 2001. Available:
A.A. Ojo, “Review on Heavy Metals Contamination in the Environment,” European Journal of Earth and Environment, 4(1), 2017. ISSN 2056-5860. Available: www.idpublications.org.
WHO, World health organization guidelines for drinking-water quality [electronic resource]: incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda, vol. 1, Recommendations.-3rd ed. pp. 186-392, 2008.
V.E. Weli, and F.A. Iwowari, “Impact of Automobile Exhaust Fumes on concentration levels of lead on Bread in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria,” International Journal of Environmental and Pollution Research, 2(3), pp. 57-72, 2014. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/vincent_weli/publication/352539368.
G. Nwaedozie, and S.E. Nyan, “Determination of Heavy Metals in Soots from Petroleum Vehicles Exhaust Tailpipes,” International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, 3(6), pp. 2233-2242, 2018. Available: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/3.6.39.
K.V.L Bharathi, D. Dwivedi, K.A. Agarwal, and M. Sharma, “Characterization of Exhaust Particulates from Diesel Engine,” Atmospheric Environment, 39(17), pp. 3023-3028, 2005. Available: https://www.iitk.ac.in/erl/index_files/PM_Heavy%20Metals_IITK1.pdf.
G. Safo-Adu, F.G. Ofosu, D. Carboo, and Y.S. Armah (2014). Heavy Metals and Black Carbon Assessment of PM10 Particulates Along Accra-Tema Highway in Ghana. International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(8), pp. 467-474. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271766234_Heavy_Metals_and_black_carbon_assessment_of_PM10_particulate_along_Accra_Tema_highway_in_Ghana. Retrieved 8/6/2019.
J.C. Corbin, A.A. Mensah, S.M. Pieber, J. Orasche, B. Michalke, M. Zanatta, H. Czech, D. Massabo, F. Buatier de Mongeot, C. Mennucci, I. EL Haddad, N.K. Kumar, B. Stengel, Y. Huang, R. Zimmermann, A.S.H. Prevot, and M. Gysel, “,Trace Metals in Soot and PM2.5 from Heavy-Fuel-Oil Combustion in a Marine Engine” Environmental Science and Technology, 52, pp. 6714-6722 2018. Available: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.8b01764.
K. Masahiro, and K.N. Midori, “Link between Aluminum and the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease: The Integration of the Aluminum and Amyloid Cascade Hypotheses,” International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2011, Article ID 276393, 17 pages, 2011. Available: doi: 10.4061/2011/276393.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.