Empirical Characterization of Heavy Metals in Crude Oil Spill Sites in Emohua, Rivers State, Nigeria

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  •   Nnamdi Michael Ahiamadu

  •   Ify L. Nwaogazie

  •   Yusuf O. L. Momoh

Abstract

The study assessed the concentration of heavy metals in three oil spill sites in Emohua local government area in Rivers State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected at depth 0-30cm for surface soil samples and up to 10m for sub-surface soil samples depending on the depth of borehole. Groundwater samples were collected from drilled boreholes while the surface water samples were collected from fishponds or water bodies (rivers) close to the oil spill sites. The samples taken from the oil spill sites were analysed to determine the level of concentration of 10 Department of Petroleum Resource (DPR) specified heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ba, Ni, Hg, As, and Co). BUCK Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used in detecting the concentration of the heavy metals. For the surface soil, Pb concentration in site A and B were significantly higher than what was obtained at site C, with a mean concentration of 219.70, 130.01 and 3.41mg/kg respectively for the three sites. The mean lead (Pb) concentration obtained in the surface soil was within DPR and United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) acceptable limits. Barium also has significant concentration in both the surface soil and sub-surface soil. Kruskal Wallis test indicated significant difference in the Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ba concentration in surface/topsoil among the three sites and also indicated significant difference in the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Ba and As in sub-surface soil among the sites. Little heavy metal concentration was found in both the groundwater and surface water. The study showed that even if some heavy metals were detected at the oil spill sites, they do not pose any serious health risk, as all the heavy metals in the four environmental media at the three sampling sites were below the national limit stipulated by the Department of Petroleum Resource (DPR), Nigeria.


Keywords: Concentration, Heavy Metals, Niger Delta Soil, pollution

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How to Cite
Ahiamadu, N. M., Nwaogazie, I. L., & Momoh, Y. O. L. (2021). Empirical Characterization of Heavy Metals in Crude Oil Spill Sites in Emohua, Rivers State, Nigeria. European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, 2(5), 24-28. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.5.161