Studies have revealed that the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is only three meter above mean sea level and their coastline is dynamic in nature which renders hundreds of coastal communities exposed and vulnerable to climate change risk and hazards. The region is faced with seasonal flooding, increase in temperature, high precipitation, erosion, river salinization, ocean surges and siltation. In this paper, we reviewed over 80 publications on related subjects of social, economic and environmental drivers of climate change vulnerability in the Niger Delta and their recurring and predicted impacts. Lack of empirical baseline data on climate change, inadequate enforcement of environmental laws, insignificant state fiscal budget on climate change, lack of political will and low interest of political leadership, absence of state policies aimed to enhance climate change adaptation and mitigation, persistent cases of oil spills and gas flaring by multinational oil companies, low public awareness and inadequate technical capacity were identified and analyzed as multidimensional factors militating against local effort for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the Niger Delta region. The state governments, multinational oil companies, intervention agencies, research institutions and critical community stakeholders especially in coastal areas in the Niger Delta should work together to achieve a systematic integrated plan for long term risk prevention and impact reduction through adaptation and mitigation approaches. Furthermore, strategic local solutions should include the assessment of impacts of climate change on social, environmental, and economic sector at the state, local government and community level. This should be accompanied with smart green policy measures and implementation of elaborate regional climate change education programs, development of skill sets for green entrepreneurship among youths and established framework of sustainable economic development in the region.
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