Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Consumption of Vegetables Irrigated with Tin Mine Pond Water in Jos – South, Plateau State

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   G. M. Mafuyai

  •   S. Ugbidye

  •   G. I. Ezekiel

Abstract

The water range from Pb (1.439 – 1.715), Cu (0.234 – 0.377), Cd (0.838 – 1.346), Zn (0.448 – 1.110), Cr (0.144 – 0.794), Mn (0.777 – 2.011) and As (0.584 – 1.341) mg/L.  The range in soil was Pb (67.5 – 120), Cu (8.51 – 32.5), Cd (0.21 – 1.72), Zn (70.8 – 85.6), Cr (15.8 – 29.5), Mn (14.6 – 19.1) and As (52.0 – 198) mg/kg and  in the vegetables in the range of Pb (0.177 – 0.545), Cu (0.073 – 0.748), Cd (0.005 – 0.019), Zn (0.264 – 0.915), Cr (0.089 – 0.158), Mn (0.162 – 0.253) and As (0.032 – 0.245) mg/kg. The study shows that the transfer coefficient of the heavy metals to vegetable was less than one (< 1). The estimated daily intake (DIM) of heavy metals from vegetables irrigated with tin mine pond water were in the order: Cd > Zn > Mn > Cr > Cu > Pb > As.  The health risk index (HRI) of all the studied heavy metals indicated that all vegetables were safe with no risk to human health except for Cd.  health risk assessment of heavy metals in consumption of vegetables irrigated with tin mine pond water in Jos - South, Plateau State


Keywords: Contamination, Vegetables, Health Risk Index, Heavy Metals

References

G. Chauhan and U.K. Chauhan, (2014). Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of vegetables grown in wastewater irrigated area of Rewa, India. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 4(9), pp. 1-9.

A.O. Adegbulugbe. “Issues of Radioactive Waste Arising from Tin Mining Activities on the Jos Plateau” Paper presented to the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, 2007.

H. I. Ajaegbu, A. A. Adepetu, J.E. Ajakpo, V.C. Ihemegbulem, S.E. Jumbo, J.A. Olaniyan, G.C. Okechukwu and K. Schoeneich, (1992). “Jos Plateau Environmental Excursion Guide” Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme (J.P.E.R.D.P.) Department of Geography, University of Durham., Durham, England.

S. Koushik, A. Kalyan and G. Aniruddha. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil In and Around Open Cast Mines of Raniganj Area, India. Pp.45-69. 2012.

S. Li, W. Liu, S. Gu, X. Cheng, Z. Xu, and Q.Zhang. Spatio-temporal dynamics of nutrients in the upper Han River basin, China. J. Hazard. Mater. 162(2), pp. 1340. 2009.

D. Hinrichsen, and H. Tacio (2002). The coming fresh water crisis is already here. Finding the source: The linkages between population and water. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC, ESCP Publication spring.

G. M. Mafuyai, I.S. Eneji, R. Sha’Ato, and L.A. Nnamonu, (2019). Heavy Metals in Soil and Vegetables Irrigated with Ex- Tin Mining Ponds Water in Barkin - Ladi Local Government Area Plateau State, Nigeria. Agriculture and Food Sciences Research, 6(2), pp. 211-220.

J.A. Enaam, (2013). Evaluation of Surface Water Quality Indices for Heavy Metals of Diyala River Iraq. J. Nat. Sci. Res. 3(8), pp. 63-64.

F. Fenglian and W. Qi, (2011). Removal of Heavy Metal ions from Waste Waters: A review Journal of. Environmental Management. 92(3), pp. 407-418.

K. Cambra, T. Martinezm, A. Urzelai, E. Alonso, (1999). Risk analysis of a farm area near a lead and cadmium contaminated industrial site. Soil sediment contamination 8, 527-540.

G. J. Wagner, (1993). Accumulation of cadmium in crop plants and consequences to human health Journal of Advanced Agronomy. 51, pp. 173-212.

WHO, Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. In: Forty-First Report of the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, WHO Technical Series, 837, 1993.

L. Jarup. Hazards of heavy metal contamination Brit. Med. Bull. 2003,68, pp. 167-182.

USEPA (2012). Waste and cleanup risk assessment. http://www2.epa.gov/risk/waste-and-cleanup-risk-assessment.

M. A. Lushenko, (2010). A risk assessment for ingestion of toxic chemicals in fish from Imperial beach, California: San Diego State University.

R. Milacic, and B. Kralj, (2003). Determination of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr in some Slovenian foodstuffs. European Food Research and Technology 217, pp. 211-214.

C.Y. Chang, H.Y.Yu, J.J. Chen, F.B. Li, H.H. Zhang and C.P. Liu, (2014). Accumulation of heavy metals in leaf vegetables from agricultural soils and associated potential health risks in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186, pp. 1547-1560.

A. Mahmood, and R.N. Malik, (2014). Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from different irrigation sources in Lahore. Pakistan. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 7, pp. 91-99.

R.K. Badawy, A.M.A. El-Gawad and H.E. Osman,(2013). Health risks assessment of heavy metals and microbial contamination in water, soil and agricultural foodstuff from wastewater irrigation at Sahl El-Hessania area, Egypt. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 9(4), pp. 3091-3107.

K. Lock and H. de Zeeuw, (2001). Health and Environmental Risks Associated with Urban Agriculture. Urban Agricultural Management, 1, pp. 6-8.

M.U. Henry, R.A. Ogenyi, U.I. Henry and O. Dogun, (2018). Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentration in Water, Soil and Vegetable in Ex-Mining Pond, Jos South L.G.A Plateau State, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,8(8), pp. 840 – 845.

V.N. Daniel, E.S. Chundusu and J.A. Chup, (2014). Heavy Metals Accumulation in Agricultural Soils Irrigated with Tin - Mine Water in B/Ladi, Plateau State, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 14(4), pp. 69 –74.

G.M. Mafuyai, I.S. Eneji, R. Sha’Ato and L.A. Nnamonu L.A, Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil Irrigated with Ex- Tin Mining Ponds Water, Bokkos L.G.A Plateau State, Nigeria. African Journal of Environment and Natural Science Research Volume 2, Issue 3, (2019) pp. 13-28.

S. Jiya and H.D. Musa, (2012). Impact of derived Tin Mining Activities on Landuse/Land covering Bukuru, Plateau State, Nigeria Journal of sustainable Development 5(5), pp. 913-963.

N.S. Chary, C.T. Kamala, and D.S.S. Raj, (2008). Assessing Risk of Heavy Metals from consuming food grown on Sewage Irrigated Soil sand food chain transfer. Ecotoxicological Journal of Environmental Safety. 69, pp. 513-524.

M. Lei, B. Liao, Q. Zeng, P. Qin, and S. Khan, (2008). Fraction distribution of lead, cadmium zinc and copperin metal contaminated soil before and after extraction with disodium ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid. Community soil science plant anal. 39, pp. 1963-1978.

Z.Y. Hseu, Z.S. Chen, C.C. Tsai, C.C. Tsui, S.F. Cheng, C.L. Liu and H.T. Lin, (2002). Digestion Methods for Total Heavy Metals in Sediments and Soils. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 141, pp. 189-205.

A.A. Adesuyi, K.L. Njoku and M.O. Akinola, (2015) Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Soils and Vegetation around selected Industries in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 3, pp. 11-19.

Y.J. Cui, Y.G. Zhu, R.H. Zhai, D.Y. Chen, Y.Z. Huang, Y. Qui, and J.Z. Liang, (2004). Transfer of metals from near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environmental International, 30, pp. 785-791.

K. Sajjad, R. Farooq, S. Shahbaz, M.A. Khan and M. Sadique, (2009). Health risk assessment of heavy metals for population via consumption of vegetables. World Applied Sciences Journal, 6(12), pp. 1602-1606.

S.C. Barman, R.K. Sahu, S.K. Bhargava and C. Chatterjee, (2000). Distribution of heavy metals in wheat, mustard and weed grown in fields irrigated with industrial effluents. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 64, pp. 489- 496.

S.Q. Khan, Y.M. Zheng, Y.Z. Huang and Y.G. Zhu, (2008) Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Journal of Environmental Pollution, 152(3), pp. 686-692.

R.K Rattan, S.P. Datta, P.K. Chhonkar, K. Suribabu and A.K. Singh. Long term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in the soils crops and groundwater – a case study. Agriculture ecosystem and environment, 109, pp. 310-322. 2005.

WHO/FAO (2013) Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater and food stuff; 2, pp.1 - 14: 988 Wastewater Use in Agriculture, World Health Organization, Geneva.

I. Lente, J. Ofosu-Anim, A.K. Brimah and S. Atiemo, (2014). Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater in Accra, Ghana. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 22(1), pp. 41-58.

K.U. Osuocha, E.C. Chukwu, E.A. Ugbogu, O.C. Atasie and C.E. Ogbonna, (2016). Effects of Quarry Mining activities on The Nutritional Composition of Edible Vegetables in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 4(5), pp. 467-474.

WHO/FAO, (2007). Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme Codex Alimentarius Commission 13th Session. Report of the Thirty Eight Session of the Codex Committee on Food.

A.K. Chopra and C. Pathak, (2012). Bioaccumulation and translocation efficiency of heavymetals in vegetables grown on long-term wastewater irrigated soil near Bindal river, Dehradun. Agricultural Research, 1(2), pp. 157-164.

S. Singh, M. Zacharias, S. Kalpana and S. Mishra, (2012). Heavy metals accumulation and distribution pattern in different vegetable crops. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 4 pp. 75 – 81.

B.W. Tukura, A.C. Etonihu, I.A. Ambo and T. Iboro (2016). Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables grown on farmlands irrigated with treated sewage water. FUTN Trends in Science and Technology Journal. 1(1) pp. 168-172.

G.A. Boamponsem, M. Kumi and I. Debrah, (2012). Heavy metals accumulation in cabbage, lettuce and carrot irrigated with wastewater from Nagodi mining site in Ghana. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 1(11), pp. 124-129.

S. Roy and G. Gupta (2013). Effect of wastewater irrigation on soil and some selected vegetables grown in Asansol, West Bengal. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 6 (5), pp. 894 – 904.

USEPA, (2010). Risk-based oncentration Table. United State Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2010.

L.T. Bambara, K. Kabore, M. Derra, M. Zoungrana, F. Zougmoré and O. Cisse, (2015). Assessment of heavy metals in irrigation water and vegetables in selected farms at Loumbila and Paspanga, Burkina Faso. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, 9(4), pp. 2319–2399.

M.S. Brar, S.S. Mahli, A.P. Singh, C.L. Arora and K.S. Gill, 2000. Sewer water irrigation effects on some potentially toxic trace elements in soil and potato plants in northwestern India. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 80 pp. 465-471.

T. Akabzaa, B. Banoeng-Yakubo and J. Seyire, (2009). Impact of mining activities on water resources in the vicinity of the Obuasi mine. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 11(1). http://doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v11i1.45719.

R. Bharose, S.B. Lal, S.K. Singh and P.K. Srivastava, (2013). Heavy metals pollution in soil-water-vegetation continuum irrigated with ground water and untreated sewage. Bulletin of Environmental and Scientific Research, 2(1), pp. 1-8.

WHO, (2010). World Health Organization Water for Health, Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Geneva: World Health Organization.

WHO (2001). World Health Organization Codex Alimentarius Commission, Food additives and contaminants. WHO food standards Programme, ALINORM 10/12A:1-289. Fertilizer and their efficient use.

V.N. Daniel, E.S. Chudusu, J.A. Chup and N.D Pius, (2014). Variation of Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils Irrigated with Tin Water in Heipang District of Barkin Ladi, Plateau State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(5), pp. 674-683.

A.K. Ratul, M. Hassan, M.K. Uddin, M.S. Sultana, M.A. Akbor and M.A. Ahsan, (2018). Potential health risk of heavy metals accumulation in vegetables irrigated with polluted river water.International Food Research Journal, 25(1), pp. 329-338.

S.K. Awashthi, (2000). Prevention of Food Adulteration Act no. 37 of 1954. Central and State Rules as Amended for 1999, Ashoka Law House, New Delhi.

A.K. Ghosh, M.A. Bhatt and H.P. Agrawal, (2012). Effect of long-term application of treated sewage water on heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in northern India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184, pp. 1025-1036.

V. N. Daniel, E. S. Chundusu, and J. A. Chup (2014). Heavy Metals Accumulation in Agricultural Soils Irrigated with Tin - Mine Water in B/Ladi, Plateau State, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 14(4), pp.69 –74.

EU, (2002). European Union. Heavy Metals in Wastes, European Commission on Environment (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/studies/pdf/heavymetal sreport.pdf).

W.J. Sanok, G.E. Joseph, L.M. Kerry, H.G. Walter and J.L. Donald. Residues of arsenic and lead in potato soils on Long Island. Chemosphere, 30(4), pp. 803-806.1995.

T. Takamatsu, H. Aoki and T. Yoshida. Determination of arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonate, and dimethylasinate in soil polluted with arsenic. Soil Science. 1982.133, pp. 239-246.

O.J. Dorcas, N.E. Joseph and J.S. Sunday, (2016). Determination of the Contamination Levels of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Mercury in the Vegetables from Old Mining Site of Jos Plateau, Nigeria. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research and Innovations, 4(2): 40 – 44.

H.M. Naser, S. Sultana, N.U. Mahmud, R. Gomes and S. Noor, (2011). Heavy metal levels in vegetables with growth stage and plant species variation. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 36(4), pp. 563-574.

M. Al-Jaboobi, A. Zouahri, M. Tijane, A.E. Housani, Z. Mennane, H. Yachou and M. Bouksami, (2014). Evaluation of heavy metals pollution in groundwater, soil and some vegetables irrigated with wastewater in the Skhirat region “Morocco”. Journal of Materials Environmental Science, 5(3), pp. 961 – 966.

T.F. Duressa and S. Leta, (2015). Determination of Levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in Soils and Some Vegetables Taken from River Mojo Water Irrigated Farmland at Koka Village, Oromia State, East Ethiopia. International Journal of Science: Basic and Applied Research. (21), pp. 2.

E.O. Orish, A.D. Emmanuel, O.C.M. Herbert and A.U. Nnaemeka, (2017). Lead Levels in Vegetables from Artisanal Mining Sites of Dilimi River, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi North Central Nigeria: Cancer and Non-Cancer Risk Assessment. Asian Pac Journal Cancer, 18(3), pp. 621 – 627.

A. Yadav, P.K. Yadav and D.N. Shukla, (2013). Investigation of heavy metal status in soil and vegetables grown in urban area of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(9), pp. 1-7.

z. Saglam, (2013). Heavy Metal Accumulation in Edible Parts of Some Cultivated Plants and Media Samples from a Volcanic Region in Southern Turkey. Ecology, 22(86), pp.1-8.

R.K. Sharma and M. Agrawal, (2006). Effects of single and combined treatments of Cd and Zn on carrot plants: uptake and bioaccumulation. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29, pp. 1791-1804.

R. Auta, S. A. James T. Auta and E. M. Sofa (2011). Nutritive value and Phytochemical Composition of Processed Solanum incanum (Bitter Garden Egg). Science World Journal, (3):5-6.

L. Shibao, W.L. Jianhua and P. Liang, (2016). Study on the Effects of irrigation with reclaimed water on the content and distribution of heavy metals in soil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, pp. 298-308.

FAO/WHO (2011). Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards ProgrammeCodex Committee on Contaminants in Foods; Fifth Session, pp. 64-89.

Y.N. Jolly, S. Akter, J. Kabir, and A. Islam, A. (2013). Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of vegetables collected from an area selected for introducing a nuclear power plant. Research Journal of Physical and Applied Sciences, 2(4) pp. 43-51.

G. Benti, (2014). Assessment of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with Awash River selected farms around Adama town, Ethiopia. Afrcan Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 8(7) pp.428 – 434.

Q. A. Abdul, K. Qudsia, B. Ruqia and Y. Balal, Accessing Potential Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Selective Vegetables from Gujranwala District, Pakistan. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 2015, 5(8) pp.58-70.

A. Kumar and V. K. Seema, (2017). Human Health Risk of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Grown in Contaminated Soil Irrigated with Sewage Water. American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 4(4), pp. 23-35.

EPA, Environmental Protection Agency Parameters of Water Quality. Interpretation and Standards, Johnstown Castle Co. Wexford Irelan, 2001, pp.82.

T.J. Srinivasan and R.V. Reddy. Watse Water Irrigation in India: An Analyaisof Its Heath Impact. A Conference Paper of INSEE, Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Nizamiah Observatory Campus, Begumpet, Hyderabad, 2009.

M. Muchuweti, J.W. Birkett, E. Chinyanga, R. Zvauya, M.D. Scrimshaw and J.N. Lester, (2006). Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixture of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: implications for human health. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 112, pp.41 – 48.

A. Kumar, I.K. Sharma, A Sharma, S. Varshney, P.S. Verma, (2009). Heavy metals contamination of vegetable foodstuffs in Jaipur (India). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural Food Chemistry 8(2), pp. 96 -101.

A.K. Ibrahim, H. Yakubu and M.S. Askira, (2014). Assessment of heavy metals accumulated in wastewater irrigated soils and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in Kwadon, Gombe State, Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 14 (6) pp. 502-508.

J. Smit and B. Nasr, (1992). Urban agriculture for sustainable cities: Using wastes and idle and and water bodies as resources. Environment and Urbanization, 4(2): pp.141–152.

G. M. Mafuyai, U. Shaapera and S.M. Ayuba (2020). Enrichment and Geoaccumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Mn and Cr in Farm Soils around Tin Mine Areas in Plateau State, Nigeria. African Journal of Environment and Natural Science Research, 3(2):pp.22-31.

B. Mohsen, and S. Mohsen, American-Eurasian. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 4: 86. 2006.

B. H. AZita and A. M. Seid, Warld Academy of Sciece, Engineering and Technology 43: 56. 7. 2008

M.J. McLaughlin, D.R. Parker and J.M. Clarke, Field Crops Research 60:143. 8, 1999.

M. A. Lushenko, A risk assessment for ingestion of toxic chemicals in fish from Imperial beach, California: San Diego State University.2010.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Mafuyai, G. M., Ugbidye, S., & Ezekiel, G. I. (2020). Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Consumption of Vegetables Irrigated with Tin Mine Pond Water in Jos – South, Plateau State. European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, 1(5). https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2020.1.5.21